Šiauliai

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION…………………………3

1. HISTORY OF THE CITY…………………………4

1.1 XIII – XVI centuries…………………………4

1.2 XV – XVI centuries…………………………4

1.3 XVII – XVIII centuries…………………………4

1.4 XIX century…………………………4

1.5 Šiauliai During The Period of The First Independed Lithuanian Republic…………5

2. MAIN EVENTS IN ŠIAULIAI…………………………5

3. ART GALLERIES…………………………6

3.1 Gallery „Laiptai“…………………………6

3.2 Šiauliai Art Gallery…………………………6

3.3 Art Gallery of Šiauliai University…………………………6

4. MUSEUMS…………………………7

4.1 Frencel‘s Palace…………………………7

4.2 Radio & TV museum…………………………7

4.3 The Žaliukai Windmill…………………………7

4.4 Bicycle museum…………………………7

5. Sts. & Apostles Peter and Paul’s Cathedral……………………..8

6. Sundial Square…………………………8

REFERENCES…………………………9

INTRODUCTION

Šiauliai (Polish Szawle, German Schaulen) is the fourth largest city of Lithuania with a ppopulation of 133,883. The city’s founding date is now considered to be September 22, 1236; the same date upon which the battle of the Sun took place, not far from Šiauliai. Through the course of both world wars more than 80% of its buildings were destroyed.

Šiauliai is very beautiful city, there is muny sculptures, museums, galleries. The fourth biggest town in Lithuania is also one of the biggest cultural centres in Lithuania.

HISTORY OF THE CITY

XIII – XIV centuries

Šiauliai iis located in Northern Lithuania on the picturesque hillsides of the Žemaičių (Samogitian) Hills in the watershed of the rivers Venta, Dubysa, Nevėžis and Mūša. The lake of Talša lies in the very center of the city. There are more llakes in and around the city: Lake Ginkūnai lies to north of Lake Talša, the picturesque minor Lake Švedė borders in the eastern part of the city while Lake Rėkyva, which is the largest lake in Lithuania, lies to the south.

Šiauliai is a historic city, and in the chronicles of the crusader Knights of the Sword (1236) it is variously referred to as Soule, Saulia and Saulen. 22 September 1236, the date of the battle of the Sun which took place nearby is now considered to be the date of the city’s foundation.

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Šiauliai was seen as the center of the „Sun-land“.

XV – XVI centuries

In 1445, a wooden church was bbuilt, and this was replaced in 1625 with the present brick one which can be seen in the center of the city today. From the sixteenth century Šiauliai had Magdeburg rights.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century the region of Šiauliai was established and included the township of Šiauliai, Joniškis, Radviliškis and Meškuičiai, with Šiauliai as the center, referred to as „Didieji Šiauliai“.

XVII – XVIII centuries

From the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries Šiauliai was devastated both by the SSwedish army and by an epidemic of the plague; but by the end of the eighteenth century it had become the center for thirteen lowland districts. In the same century a variety of manufacturing industries were set up, and the town was developed along classical architectural lines.

From 1795 Šiauliai became the administrative center of the district, and in the nineteenth century became on the principle trade centers connecting Lithuania to the ports of Riga and Liepoja.

XIX century

In 1839, the St. Petersburg to Königsberg highway and in 1871 the Liepoja to Romnai railway were built, both of which passed through Šiauliai.

In 1872, the city was destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt, and new factories were developed to manufacture or process silk, wool, chocolate, leather, cigarettes and to brew beer.

In 1897, Šiauliai was the second largest city in Lithuania after Kaunas according to the number of inhabitants (16128 people). In 1909, 56.4 percent of inhabitants were Hebrews.

During World War 1 there were great battles in and around Šiauliai from April to June 1915, and not only the center of the town was destryed on April 17th, but overall, eighty five percent of the buildings in ŠŠiauliai were burned down, and the city was occupied by the German army.

Šiauliai During The Period of The First Independent Lithuanian Republic

This period is called often as inter-war period, when the city began its new life. After the First World War the town has been reconstructed, and five leather or shoes factories were established, as well as weaving and knitwear factories, a furniture factory, the „Gubernija“ brewery and a linen weaving factory. By 1938 growth of Šiauliai was marked, and it accounted for 85 percent of all the leather production, 60 percent of shoe production, 75 percent of linen production and 35 percent of chocolate production in Lithuania. During this inter-war period, Šiauliai was the second most important city of Lithuania after the capital Kaunas.

With the advent of the Second World War, Šiauliai was once again in the center of battles, and once again it was occupied by the German army, and suffered the destruction of eighty percent of its buildings. After the war, the town was reconstructed, and factories were either rebuilt or started from scratch. The city center was reconstructed and many new residential districts were completed. Once again Šiauliai became the regional center, a pplace it still occupies, with the municipalities of Joniškis, Pakruojis, Radviliškis, Šiauliai, Kelmė and Naujoji Akmenė forming the region.

MAIN EVENTS IN ŠIAULIAI

The fourth biggest town in Lithuania is also one of the biggest cultural centres in Lithuania. State chamber choir ‘Polifonija’ makes Šiauliai famous. Šiauliai Philharmonic Society arranges concerts of professional collectives and artists. During Easter week international church music festival is organised in the town’s churches. Šiauliai hasn’t got an old town, but the town’s cultural life is full of original festivals that invite everybody. The most interesting festivals are: festival ‘Ant Rubeþiaus’ where country musicians from the four Lithuania’s regions meet together, ‘Country Jonines’, Lithuanian country music festival, the youth art festival ‘Zuwys’, and the original Lieporiai day – the main purpose of this day is to draw society’s attention to the valuable archaeological monument, people’s who lived here many years ago trades and tools. The town is proud of its university, which is the only one in the Northern Lithuania, Šiauliai Drama Theatre, chamber orchestra, the wooden wind-instruments orchestra of Šiauliai Culture Centre, students’ art collectives.

ART GALLERIES

Gallery ‘Laiptai’

During five years of intensive work gallery ‘Laiptai’ became one of the most important

culture institutions in Šiauliai. Representatives from small towns have a chance to perform. There is enough space for the newest art phenomena.

Šiauliai Art Gallery

Šiauliai art gallery is one of the most important galleries of fine art in Northern Lithuania. Fine art exhibitions (painting, sculpture, graphics, photography, installations, applied art, video-art) of artists from Šiauliai, Lithuania and foreign countries are often held in the Art Gallery. The newest tendencies of modern art of local and world-wide level are introduced here. DDifferent joint projects (‘Polincestas’, ‘Zuwys’, ‘Incident’, ‘Virus’), concerts of chamber, jazz, electronical and experimental music as well as art performances, vanguard fashion shows are often held along with various discussions, presentations of all kinds of publications.

Art Gallery of Šiauliai University

The gallery is open to European arts, and it strives for the widest possible diversity of exhibitions.

The gallery also runs an art shop.

MUSEUMS

Frencel’s Palace

Ch. Frencel’s Palace was built in 1908. It is one of the few bbuildings in Lithuania built in the Secessio style. The main accent of the palace interior is wooden finishing. An exposition entitled Provincial Manor and Town from Mid – 19th to Mid – 20th Century displayed in the Palace.

Radio & TV MMuseum

Collection of old gramophones, music boxes, record players, radio receivers, and television sets that are still in working condition.

The Žaliukai Windmill

Displayed in the windmill is grinding equipment. There is also an exposition of ethnographic household articles related to grinding. A festival called the Days of Old Crafts is held next to the museum every may.

Bicycle Museum

The exposition tells the story of the development of bicycles from the beginning of the 19th century till the present day. The most valuable exhibits of the museum are a hand-made bicycle, an imperial Triuph bicycle made in 1812, and bicycles from the period between the two world wars from Germany and Ireland.

Sts. & Apostles Peter and Paul’s Cathedral

The CCathedral is situated in the centre of the city. The architectural complex of the Cathedral consists of the Cathedral itself and a churchyard fence with a gate. The construction of Sts. & Apostles Peter and Paul’s Church began in 1594 on the site of a decayed wooden church. The building was erected in the Renaissance style, with quit a few features typical of mediaeval architecture. In 1997, the church was granted the status of a cathedral.

Sundial Square

And a beautiful bbronze Shooter sculpture (sculptor St.Kuzma) standing in the middle of the square unite the three town symbols: Sun, that reminds us of Sun battle, Shooter and Time that has passed from the day when the name of the town was mentioned for the first time.

REFERENCES

• http//www.siauliai.lt

• http//www.travel.lt

• Pamper “Explore Šiauliai“

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